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Tag - solid state drive

ssd drives Solid state disk and mechanical hard disk storage principle

The basic working principle of a mechanical hard disk (HDD).ssd drives
When a mechanical hard drive needs to read or write data, it receives a command, the head moves to the appropriate position, and the platter rotates so that the data operation area is in the specified position.
The time required for these actions is the seek time and latency period, which take several milliseconds due to the need to move the device.
This is due to the read/write mechanism of the operating system:
Hard disk is divided into several areas as the most basic operating unit, the unit is called "sectors", when a new writing data, choose one or a few sectors for writing data, the position of these sectors are next to each other, they are logically continuous, in both the read and write the required time is short.
And here's the crux of the matter:
After all the data are not in the established forever there won't be changed, when previously written data modification, such as increasing the content and data volume increase, and next to the location of the original sectors have other data, these new data will be written to the other place to go, so we see in the operating system of a file, in the actual physical address is not continuous,
When the file is read again, the disk will have to do more work, and in the worst case, the head and platter will be moved and rotated many times, and the final working time will be doubled.
With the increase of storage capacity per unit area, we can enjoy higher capacity hard drives, but the speed of reading and writing data has not been much improved.
Because the key factors that determine seek time and latency period: head movement speed and disk rotation speed are close to the limit, further increase will bring other adverse factors: such as cost increase, noise, temperature increase and so on

1.Physical structure of the ssd drives

The system interface, power supply, and drive mode of SSDS are all the same as those of HDDS. The main changes are the constituent units and physical working mode.
The SSD internals include a PCB board, a main controller chip, a flash memory chip and, in some cases, a cache.
The most basic unit of an SSD is a Flash memory chip, called Nand Flash. It is a non-volatile memory chip that can write and erase data very fast by charging and dropping data.
Since signals are transmitted entirely through circuits during read and write operations, there is no movement of the head, rotation of the platter, etc., as in HDDS, which greatly reduces the processing time.
However, Nand Flash is also divided into several types. Currently, consumer SSDS and even many enterprise SSDS use MLC (multi-layer cell) Flash memory, which has a lower write performance than SLC (single-layer cell) Flash memory, and a shorter life span, but the price is much lower.
Even so, the current cost of SSD has not been reduced to the extent that everyone can accept, and the price is still the barrier affecting the further popularity of SSD.
An SSD is composed of multiple Nand flash flash memory particles, each of which can be considered as an independent storage unit, and the master controller makes a RAID parallel between them.
This means that SSD reads and writes are "multithreaded", and the work is not limited to one particle at a time. The master can split the data and write it to different particles at the same time, which is naturally faster.
This is one of the reasons why SSDS are fast.
Of course, what the master has to do is fa

2.The master controller of the ssd drives

SSD Flash memory also has a minimum operation unit. Compared with mechanical hard disks, Nand Flash has a special difference in that the minimum unit for write and erase operations is different. The minimum unit for write operations is 4KB, which is called "Page", while the minimum unit for erase operations is 512KB, which is called "Block".
That is, writing to a blank cell can be done on a page-by-page basis, but to delete the data, the entire block needs to be erased.
When the data in a block needs to be deleted, the data to be deleted will be marked rather than physically erased. Then when the data needs to be written in the same physical location again, the valid data will be retained, copied to the new block, and then the original block will be erased.
It sounds complicated, but to put it simply, the SSD write mechanism requires 1MB of data to be written. The actual operation volume may be larger than this. The specific amount depends on whether the main controller's algorithm is efficient, and the actual random write speed depends on whether the operation speed is fast enough.
Like HDDS, SSDS require logical addresses to be managed. However, the minimum operating system logical address unit is 512B, and the minimum SSD write unit is 4KB, which requires that, the chipset, and the main controller work in sequence.
In addition, the main controller and is responsible for the allocation of tasks, each flash chips all flash memory state monitoring, the management of each piece of data validation, etc., quite a lot of work and multifarious, and this is why in some of the new master ARM to use dual core processor, because master performance will directly affect the speed of the SSD.

3.Advantages of ssd drives

Fast read/write speed: The flash memory is used as the storage medium, and the read speed is higher than that of a mechanical hard disk.
Solid state drives are not used, and the seek time is almost zero.
The sustained write speed is amazing, and most SSD manufacturers will claim that their SSD sustained read/write speeds exceed 500/s!
Solid state drives are faster than just continuous read and write. Random read and write speed is the ultimate meaning of solid state drives, which is most directly reflected in most daily operations.
Also associated with this are extremely low access times, with the most common 7200RPM mechanical hard drives typically having seek times of 12-14, while solid state drives can easily reach 0.1ms or less.
Shockproof and smash resistant: Traditional hard disks are disk-shaped, and data is stored in the disk sector.
And solid-state drives is to use flash particles (i.e., mp3, U disk, etc), so there are no mechanical components inside SSD solid state hard drive, so even in the case of high-speed mobile even with flip tilt also won't affect the normal use, and in the case of collisions and shocks to minimize the possibility of loss.
Compared with traditional hard disks, solid state drives have absolute advantages.
Low power consumption: Solid state drives are lower than traditional hard disks.
No noise: Solid state drives have no mechanical motors and fans, and the noise level is 0 dB when working.
Flash-based solid-state drives consume less energy and generate less heat when operating (although higher-end or high-capacity devices consume more energy).
There are no mechanical moving parts inside, no mechanical failure, and not afraid of collision, impact, vibration.
Since solid-state drives use flash memory chips without mechanical components, they have the characteristics of low heat and fast heat dissipation.
Wide range of operating temperatures: Typical hard drives only work in the range of 5 to 55 degrees Celsius.
Most solid-state drives work from -10 to 70 degrees Celsius.
Solid-state disks are smaller and lighter than mechanical disks of the same capacity.
The interface specifications, definitions, functions, and usage methods of solid state drives are the same as those of common hard disks, and the product shape and size are the same as those of common hard disks.
Its operating temperature range is very wide (-40~85 degrees Celsius).
Lightweight: Solid-state drives are lighter in terms of weight, weighing 20-30 grams less than regular 1.8-inch hard drives.

ssd drives


hard drives vs memoria ddr4 ram ddr3 1333mhz 1600mhz 8gb 4gb 1600 mhz pin with ubdimm for pc desktop

The basic principle .memoria ddr4

DDR 400MHz that 400MHz refers to the memory bandwidth, is a converted value of the operating frequency.
The DDR 400MHz memory runs at a clock frequency of 200MHz. DDR can access data twice per clock cycle, so it is equivalent to running at a clock frequency of 400MHz (200MHz x 2).
The same algorithm, DDR2 533 memory, running frequency of 133MHz, each clock cycle can access four times of data, equivalent to 533MHz (133MHz×4).
Of course, the higher the number, the higher the frequency, the faster the memory must be.
DDR3, 4 memory has matured, several times faster than DDR2, DDR3 is currently used by mainstream motherboards, and DDR4 positioning is still in the mainstream above.

memoria ddr4

Current situation of the development of memoria ddr4

The standard specification for DDR4 memory is almost complete, and Samsung and Hynix have already completed their samples. However, DDR3 is still in its heyday, so it is not expected to arrive in a hurry.
The latest news is that DDR4 memory will first hit servers in 2014, and then the desktop in about a year and a half.
Haswell-ex, Intel's next generation enterprise server platform, will be the first to integrate DDR4 memory controllers.
Haswell-ex is part of the same family as Haswell that we've always envisioned, targeting large enterprise domains such as data centers with up to 16 cores, 64 cores for four routes.
DDR4 memory not only provides a significant increase in frequency (up to 4266MHz), but also features low voltage of 1.2V, better peer-to-peer protection, and error recovery. These large-scale applications in servers and enterprise centers will see immediate benefits.
As for the desktop, both 22nmHaswell and 14nm broadwell will use the same LGA1150 package interface, and memory controllers will naturally be limited to DDR3. DDR4 support is likely to wait until "Skylake", a new architecture for 14nm technology, in 2015.
AMD's 2016 cpus are compatible with DDR4 memory and will be used in the next generation of AM4 interfaces, namely Ryzen5 and above and A9 and above.
This pace is not fast, market research agencies have previously believed that DDR4 memory should be basically available by 2015.

upgrading too quickly is not a good thing, everyone can enjoy cheap DDR3 more secure.hard drives

And if you're worried that Haswell and Broadwell are going to lose out on memory performance, don't worry. A DDR3 is sure to become more and more common, with new features such as ultra-low latency internal memory controllers, flush capabilities, floating point peak emittance, FMA arithmetic, and four-level caching.
All contribute to better memory performance.
Interface of a memory module. Common memory modules are as follows:
Single-row in-line Memory modules (SIMM) and dual-row in-line memory modules (DIMMs).
SIMM memory modules are classified into 30 lines and 72 lines.
Compared with SIMM memory modules, DIMM pins increase to 168 lines.
Dimms can be used in a single or mixed manner. Simms must be used in pairs.
According to the way memory works, memory has FPA EDO DRAM and SDRAM (synchronous dynamic RAM) and other forms.
FPA (FAST PAGE MODE) RAM: This is common memory in older computer systems that transmits data every three clock pulse cycles.
EDO (EXTENDED DATA OUT) RAM: EDO memory cancels the time interval between the motherboard and memory cycles. It outputs DATA once every two clock pulse cycles, greatly shortening the access time and increasing the storage speed by 30% EDO memory has been replaced by SDRAMS (SYSNECRONOUS) DRAM Synchronous Dynamic Random access Memory: SDRAM is 168 bits, which is currently used by PENTIUM models and above.
SDRAM locks THE CPU and RAM together through an identical clock so that the CPU and RAM can share a clock cycle and work synchronously at the same speed. The rising edge of each clock pulse starts to transfer data, which is 50% faster than EDO memory.

DDR (DOUBLE DATA RAGE) RAM: memoria ddr4/ hard drives

The next generation of SDRAM, which allows DATA to be transmitted on the rising and falling edges of clock pulses, thus doubling the speed of SDRAM without increasing the clock frequency.
RDRAM (RAMBUS DRAM) memory bus dynamic random access memory;
RDRAM is a new TYPE of DRAM developed by RAMBUS corporation with system bandwidth, chip to chip interface design, which can transfer data over a very high frequency range over a simple bus.
He uses both low-voltage signals to transmit data on both sides of a high-speed synchronized clock pulse.
INTEL will add support for RDRAM to its 820 chipset.
Because the price of such memory is too expensive, it is no longer seen on PCS.
DDR2 (Double Data Rate 2) SDRAM is a new generation of memory technology standard developed by JEDEC (Joint Committee for Electronic Equipment Engineering). The biggest difference between IT and the previous generation OF DDR memory technology standard is that although the basic way of Data transmission is adopted at the same time when the clock rises/falls,
DDR2 memory modules, however, provide four bits of data read prefetch, twice that of the previous generation DDR memory.
In other words, DDR2 memory can read/write data at four times the speed of an external bus per clock, and can run at four times the speed of an internal control bus.
In addition, as the DDR2 standard stipulates that all DDR2 memory is packaged in FBGA format, FBGA provides better electrical performance and heat dissipation, which provides a solid foundation for the stable operation and future frequency development of DDR2 memory.
Recalling the development process of DDR, from the first generation of DDR200 applied to personal computers through DDR266, DDR333 to today's dual channel DDR400 technology, the development of the first generation of DDR has come to the limit of technology, it is difficult to improve the working speed of memory through conventional methods;
With the development of Intel's latest processor technology, the front-end bus has higher requirements on memory bandwidth. DDR2 memory with higher and more stable running frequency will become the trend.

hard drives

2.DDR (generation DDR)
3.DDRII (second generation of DDR)
Several kinds of memory gold finger is different, the working voltage is different.
It's not universal. It doesn't slot in.
SDR belongs to the eliminated category, there are no new products, only second-hand.
DDRII is gradually replacing DDR. At present, DDRII with the same capacity has better performance than DDR, but its price is lower than DDR.
DDR faces elimination.
DDRIII has the best performance, is developing and currently costs a lot more than others.
The current mainstream is DDRII, and in a few years it will be DDRIII.


SSD hard drives vs SATA drives vs NVMe.What is the difference between SATA and NVMe hard drives?

You're talking about hard drives. These devices are where all the data on your computer exists, from the operating system files that govern your device to the important work document that you can't lose. You want to make sure that you have the right hard drive for whatever you're trying to do.SSD hard drives

SSD hard drives SaT, SSD and NVMe are the three main types of hard drives. In this article, we will learn about the different types of people. Whether you are buying a new PC or upgrading, this should help you decide which one to buy.

What is a hard drive, and why do I need it?

The hard drive is the main component of a computer. The term "hard drive" is often abbreviated to "HDD". You might want to buy one of these:

I think you're running out of space on your HDD. I need a bigger one.

It takes a long time to open documents or to export large files.

If you're building a new computer from scratch, what will you do?

Whatever the situation, understanding why you want or need a new drive will help you know what you want and need. Once you've got that figured out, it's time to know more about the different types of hard drives and the trade - offs between them.

SATA drives

SaTATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) is the standard interface for most desktop and laptop hard drives. They are rotary hard drives with spinning platters and a needle that writes data to consecutive sectors on each platter. Compared to their predecessor, the PATA hard drive, SATA can write at a speed of 6 Gb/s and 600 MB of throughput to the disk.
A single drive can range from 500 GB to 16 TB. These are good drives if you don't need a lot of storage. If data is written to a disk, it can become fragmented and slow down the system. They are also a poor choice for laptops due to the large number of moving parts in each drive.

Pros, yes.

Low cost.

Large disk sizes


It's not good for laptops.

Requires regular de fragmentation.

SSD hard drives

Solid state drive. These disks have no moving parts. The data is stored on non-volatile flash memory instead. They are significantly faster than SATA drives because there is no needle to read or write data. Even the lower performing drives are comparable to SATA drives, but it's difficult to find an exact speed. n nThese drives are more expensive and don't come in as many sizes. SsD drives are about 2 -- 4 times the price of a SATA hard drive. (SSD hard drives)These drives are designed specifically for laptops, and have no moving parts, making them ideal for storage on the go

SSD hard drives
SSD hard drives


More durable, especially for laptops

More expensive than SATA drives

Lower disk sizes


Non - volatile memory express (NVMe) is a type of SSD that is attached to the PCIe (PCI Express) slot on the main board. These slots were originally designed for graphics cards. With a throughput of 3.9 GB/s, the interface rate on NVMe drives can reach 32 Gbps. This can be very useful if you are using a large amount of disk space.
There are some drawbacks to NVMes. They're available only on desktop computers and very expensive. To use it to its full potential, you'll want to install your operating system on it. At this time, most BIOS don't support NVMe. It's possible to get one, but it could mean replacing the entire main board.
Fastest disk type on the market

Extremely expensive

Available for desktop PCs only

May require replacing main board to get full benefit

Which is better: SATA, SSD or NVMe?

When deciding between components, there are a lot of considerations. Choose what fits your budget, capacity and technical requirements. The guidelines below may help, and while they won't fit every situation, they may be useful for planning your next build.

If you:

I need a large amount of storage.

They are on a tight budget.

I need a general purpose hard disk.

If you:

What is the best way to upgrade a laptop?

Need fast storage under 2TB
If you:

Building a high - end workstation or gaming PC

I don't have a budget.

Building a server that is gonna host an application.

It's worth mentioning that PCs typically support several hard drives at a time. Where you save files will determine whether you get the performance you want. For example, a common configuration for PCs that render video is to use a faster drive like an SSD or NVMe to run video rendering software (Camtasia, Adobe Premier, etc.) and then transfer the finished product to a cheaper, larger SATA drive.

Build your knowledge and skills.

Now that you've learned the basics of hard drives, you should be able to make an informed decision. What are the reasons behind replacing your hard drive? If you apply what you've learned here, your hard drive buying experience will be much easier.


4 Reasons and Solutions for Slow SSD(solid state drive)

As a hard disk using NAND as storage medium, SSD is ten times faster than traditional disc mechanical hard disk theory. Upgrading from mechanical hard disk(ssd) to solid state hard disk can greatly improve the speed of computer on/off, the speed of software loading and the fluency. However, some netizens often say that after upgrading the solid state hard disk, their computer does not feel faster or slower. What's wrong? Next, let's get your computer in control!

The importance of properly installing SSD interfaces is ignored

If you are using a laptop, make sure that the extension interface of the motherboard provides SATA 2, SATA 3, or M.2 interfaces, which directly affects whether the SDD you add will run at normal read/write speed. Generally, the reading and writing speed of SSD of SATA3 interface can reach about 500 MB/s, and can only reach up to 300 MB/s on SATA2. The theoretical speed is nearly twice as fast, so it is necessary to pay attention to the correct corresponding interface when adding SSD to the computer.
Some users like to take their notebook's CD-ROM drive apart and transfer it to a hard disk, but many notebooks have only SATA 2 as the CD-ROM interface, which can make it less effective to install a solid-state hard disk. Due to the speed limit of the interface, high-speed SSD speed cannot be used. Half of these users are advised to change the installation location of the CD-ROM drive to the secondary drive (mechanical hard disk) and the hard disk to the SSD when installing SSD.
In addition, many new notebooks are now equipped with M.2 interface. When installing M.2 interface SSD, users also need to see if the interface supports PCI-E channel. The relevant NVMe drivers need to be installed correctly to avoid unstable data reading and machine jamming.
What interfaces and protocols are supported by the motherboard can generally be consulted in the product description. PC Xiao Bai suggests choosing the latest Core 8th Generation notebook or using Z300 Series Chip notebook, which upgrades the SATA 3 interface completely and supports the NVMe M.2 interface SSD. It is very convenient to install the driver automatically under Win10 operating system.


Common data is not installed on SSD disks

solid state drive don't end up on your computer, and the speed at which data is read still depends on where you save the source address. When multiple hard drives are mixed and matched, for example, SSD + HDD is often chosen. If the data is still stored in HDD, it is still futile.
Solution: Reload the system and migrate the data using the newly installed SSD

The capacity of solid state hard disk is too small

To improve lifetime, SSDs(ssd) are usually erased only after the data has been fully written to its maximum capacity once, but when this process occurs, the performance of SSDs can be severely affected. Therefore, if the capacity is insufficient and often needs to be erased, the effect will be discounted.
Solution: Select large capacity SSD.

Solid state hard disks are not optimized, such as no 4K alignment

Solid state hard disk 4K alignment is very important. The so-called 4K alignment actually refers to 4K advanced formatting, which requires 4K alignment of hard disk sectors. The 4K Advanced Formatting Standard specifies that the hard disk sector size is migrated from the current 512 bytes to 4096 bytes (or 4K). This change will improve formatting efficiency, which will help the hard disk to provide higher capacity while providing improved error correction.
When partitioning, it is important to check the 4K alignment. If you find that your SSD does not have 4K alignment, you can search for and download the software Paragon Alignment Tool above to make a lossless 4K alignment for your SSD.
These are the reasons and solutions for whether your computer is slow with a solid state hard disk, especially the 4K alignment problem. After checking these problems, users are confident that the speed will be greatly improved so that your computer can fly smoothly.

solid state drive