ssd drives

ssd drives Solid state disk and mechanical hard disk storage principle

The basic working principle of a mechanical hard disk (HDD).ssd drives
When a mechanical hard drive needs to read or write data, it receives a command, the head moves to the appropriate position, and the platter rotates so that the data operation area is in the specified position.
The time required for these actions is the seek time and latency period, which take several milliseconds due to the need to move the device.
This is due to the read/write mechanism of the operating system:
Hard disk is divided into several areas as the most basic operating unit, the unit is called "sectors", when a new writing data, choose one or a few sectors for writing data, the position of these sectors are next to each other, they are logically continuous, in both the read and write the required time is short.
And here's the crux of the matter:
After all the data are not in the established forever there won't be changed, when previously written data modification, such as increasing the content and data volume increase, and next to the location of the original sectors have other data, these new data will be written to the other place to go, so we see in the operating system of a file, in the actual physical address is not continuous,
When the file is read again, the disk will have to do more work, and in the worst case, the head and platter will be moved and rotated many times, and the final working time will be doubled.
With the increase of storage capacity per unit area, we can enjoy higher capacity hard drives, but the speed of reading and writing data has not been much improved.
Because the key factors that determine seek time and latency period: head movement speed and disk rotation speed are close to the limit, further increase will bring other adverse factors: such as cost increase, noise, temperature increase and so on

1.Physical structure of the ssd drives

The system interface, power supply, and drive mode of SSDS are all the same as those of HDDS. The main changes are the constituent units and physical working mode.
The SSD internals include a PCB board, a main controller chip, a flash memory chip and, in some cases, a cache.
The most basic unit of an SSD is a Flash memory chip, called Nand Flash. It is a non-volatile memory chip that can write and erase data very fast by charging and dropping data.
Since signals are transmitted entirely through circuits during read and write operations, there is no movement of the head, rotation of the platter, etc., as in HDDS, which greatly reduces the processing time.
However, Nand Flash is also divided into several types. Currently, consumer SSDS and even many enterprise SSDS use MLC (multi-layer cell) Flash memory, which has a lower write performance than SLC (single-layer cell) Flash memory, and a shorter life span, but the price is much lower.
Even so, the current cost of SSD has not been reduced to the extent that everyone can accept, and the price is still the barrier affecting the further popularity of SSD.
An SSD is composed of multiple Nand flash flash memory particles, each of which can be considered as an independent storage unit, and the master controller makes a RAID parallel between them.
This means that SSD reads and writes are "multithreaded", and the work is not limited to one particle at a time. The master can split the data and write it to different particles at the same time, which is naturally faster.
This is one of the reasons why SSDS are fast.
Of course, what the master has to do is fa

2.The master controller of the ssd drives

SSD Flash memory also has a minimum operation unit. Compared with mechanical hard disks, Nand Flash has a special difference in that the minimum unit for write and erase operations is different. The minimum unit for write operations is 4KB, which is called "Page", while the minimum unit for erase operations is 512KB, which is called "Block".
That is, writing to a blank cell can be done on a page-by-page basis, but to delete the data, the entire block needs to be erased.
When the data in a block needs to be deleted, the data to be deleted will be marked rather than physically erased. Then when the data needs to be written in the same physical location again, the valid data will be retained, copied to the new block, and then the original block will be erased.
It sounds complicated, but to put it simply, the SSD write mechanism requires 1MB of data to be written. The actual operation volume may be larger than this. The specific amount depends on whether the main controller's algorithm is efficient, and the actual random write speed depends on whether the operation speed is fast enough.
Like HDDS, SSDS require logical addresses to be managed. However, the minimum operating system logical address unit is 512B, and the minimum SSD write unit is 4KB, which requires that, the chipset, and the main controller work in sequence.
In addition, the main controller and is responsible for the allocation of tasks, each flash chips all flash memory state monitoring, the management of each piece of data validation, etc., quite a lot of work and multifarious, and this is why in some of the new master ARM to use dual core processor, because master performance will directly affect the speed of the SSD.

3.Advantages of ssd drives

Fast read/write speed: The flash memory is used as the storage medium, and the read speed is higher than that of a mechanical hard disk.
Solid state drives are not used, and the seek time is almost zero.
The sustained write speed is amazing, and most SSD manufacturers will claim that their SSD sustained read/write speeds exceed 500/s!
Solid state drives are faster than just continuous read and write. Random read and write speed is the ultimate meaning of solid state drives, which is most directly reflected in most daily operations.
Also associated with this are extremely low access times, with the most common 7200RPM mechanical hard drives typically having seek times of 12-14, while solid state drives can easily reach 0.1ms or less.
Shockproof and smash resistant: Traditional hard disks are disk-shaped, and data is stored in the disk sector.
And solid-state drives is to use flash particles (i.e., mp3, U disk, etc), so there are no mechanical components inside SSD solid state hard drive, so even in the case of high-speed mobile even with flip tilt also won't affect the normal use, and in the case of collisions and shocks to minimize the possibility of loss.
Compared with traditional hard disks, solid state drives have absolute advantages.
Low power consumption: Solid state drives are lower than traditional hard disks.
No noise: Solid state drives have no mechanical motors and fans, and the noise level is 0 dB when working.
Flash-based solid-state drives consume less energy and generate less heat when operating (although higher-end or high-capacity devices consume more energy).
There are no mechanical moving parts inside, no mechanical failure, and not afraid of collision, impact, vibration.
Since solid-state drives use flash memory chips without mechanical components, they have the characteristics of low heat and fast heat dissipation.
Wide range of operating temperatures: Typical hard drives only work in the range of 5 to 55 degrees Celsius.
Most solid-state drives work from -10 to 70 degrees Celsius.
Solid-state disks are smaller and lighter than mechanical disks of the same capacity.
The interface specifications, definitions, functions, and usage methods of solid state drives are the same as those of common hard disks, and the product shape and size are the same as those of common hard disks.
Its operating temperature range is very wide (-40~85 degrees Celsius).
Lightweight: Solid-state drives are lighter in terms of weight, weighing 20-30 grams less than regular 1.8-inch hard drives.

ssd drives


【SSD SOLID State Disk】2023 How can I detect a hard disk fault

Simple to teach you to judge the hard drive failure problem

Disk faults can be classified into two types: SSD software faults and SSD hardware faults.
The classification of academic circles is complicated, not easy to remember( SSD SOLID State Disk), and not very practical.
I have many years of hard disk data recovery experience, just to the computer hard disk data recovery company, especially for many years encountered regular hard disk failure for a statistics and classification, many users such as hard disk failure can be according to the phenomenon corresponding to the initial judgment of hard disk failure.
1:Magnetic head damage Magnetic head damage is a common failure of hard disks, ( SSD )especially for IBM's later products.
High temperatures and cooling problems sent IBM, the founder of hard drives, to its grave.
The typical symptoms of head damage are failure to pass the self-test at startup, and the hard drive makes a regular "click, click" sound because it cannot find the path.
Some notebook hard disk sound will be relatively small, to listen to close to hear.
In this case, if the hard disk data is important, you should power off immediately, because after the head is damaged, the back swing of the head arm may scratch the disk and lead to countless data recovery.
At this time should find a strength of the data recovery company, do not get the computer city shop surface.

Now the domestic data recovery industry practitioners are uneven.

As we all know, the hard disk can only be disassembled and replaced in the pure room above 100 level.
If you disassemble a hard disk in a normal environment, the disk surface will become sticky and data cannot be recovered.
2:Motherboard damage If the hard disk motherboard burns out, the most common manifestation is that there is no response after the electricity.
Users can hold the hard drive in their hand and feel if it turns.
If it is a notebook hard disk is close to the hard disk to listen to whether there is a sound of rotation.
You can also see whether the components on the board have obvious burn marks.
If the damaged hard disk data is not important, you can go to the computer city to find a repair hard disk can be processed, if the data is important to consider, many repair hard disk will often repair the hard disk at the same time also lost data.
3.Hard disk Bad sector Hard disk bad sectors are common faults. Today's hard disks have a high speed and large capacity, which makes them more prone to bad sectors.
Users can install a fan for hard disks in common use, which is very effective against hard disk faults.
The symptom of a bad sector on a hard disk varies with the severity of the bad sector. For example, if the system starts slowly, a bad sector may occur on a system disk.
Or can enter the system, but inexplicably less partition or some partition can not be opened, or can open partition and some folders can not be opened.
These symptoms are typical of bad sectors on hard disks.
Some serious will make the system can not start normally, if mounted as a secondary disk or even make the primary disk system can not start.
Still have more serious, be BIOS seeks hard disk to want to seek along while.
At this time if the fault disk does not have important data, then get a small software low lattice, such as DM, MHDD and so on can be done, if serious may need professional tools such as PC3000.
If the faulty disk has important data, remember: Do not forcibly power on the faulty disk to replicate data, because bad sectors can easily spread.
Forcing electricity increases the number and density of bad roads.
It will increase the difficulty of data recovery and cost more.
Hard drive brands with fast bad sectors spread include Samsung, Western Digital, and IBM.
A bad track on a hard disk sometimes makes a sound, but it is not the same as a damaged head.
The sound is quieter than the damage of the magnetic head, and the hard disk indicator is steady on when a bad sector is detected.
Disk disk damage Disk damage is a common term in the industry. In fact, a disk cannot be identified and used due to an error in the firmware of the disk.
The firmware area refers to the most basic information about the hard drive stored in the negative area, such as the P list, G list, SMART table, disk size and so on.
After the disk is powered on, the magnetic head reads the information in the negative sector first. If the information in the negative sector is not read, the disk fails the self-test and an error is reported.
This type of failure typically involves a hard drive that would have reported an error in your F1 ignore or DEL CMOS setting after startup self-inspection.
Press DEL to enter the Settings, the detection of the hard disk will appear some wrong parameters, like The 40G thin disk of Maxtor will display N40P, and the capacity is generally 0, repair this kind of fault requires professional equipment.
Russia's PC3000 is the best at this and is widely used around the world.
MBR Damage The MBR is the master boot record of the hard disk, located on track 0 of the hard disk, and is very important basic information of the hard disk.
If the MBR is damaged, the hard drive can find the correct parameters in BIOS, but cannot be found in DOS or WINDOWS.
Many viruses can cause MBRS to be lost, as can bad hard drives or other human factors.
Partition table loss viruses, bad tracks, misoperations, mis-cloning, and misuse of one-click recovery (a new feature of many brands) can all lead to partition table loss.
If the entire partition table or a partition is lost due to misoperation, users should not do redundant operations to avoid overwriting data.
You can ask a professional company to restore data. If there is no important data, you can directly rebuild the partition.
The common disk faults are listed as follows. Although not all disk faults are listed, they are usually included.


ssd hard disk vs hard drive  Ssd 120gb ssd 240gb ssd 512gb ssd 1tb ssd 2tb

1tb ssd drive

hard drives

Based on this latitude, common SSD can be classified into three types: SATA, M.2, and PCIE.

The conclusions below are based on the control variable (type of interface), and all other conditions are equal by default.

SATA 2.5-inch solid-state disks have the same interface as the current mechanical disks on the market. They both have a power supply interface and a SATA3.0 data interface.

ssd hard disk  Ssd 256gb

This type of SSD is also the early form of SSD.ssd hard disk

SSD with the M.2 interface are the favorite products of computer manufacturers in recent years. When used, they can be inserted directly into the motherboard interface and fixed with screws.

Both size and installation convenience are better than traditional 2.5-inch SOLID-state drives.

It should be noted that the M.2 interface supports both SATA and PCIE channels. If it uses the SATA bus on the mainboard, its performance is not significantly different from that of the traditional SOLID-state disk, while the M.2 interface SSD that uses the PCIE bus on the mainboard is the product with better performance.

The IDE protocol is a very old transport protocol for mechanical hard disks, and there is no need to discuss it.

ALTHOUGH the AHCI protocol performs better, it is only for mechanical hard disks and was born.

 SATA protocol is the most widely used transmission protocol, faster transmission speed, high execution efficiency, but also support hot swap, currently on the market most of the hard disk or use SATA protocol, SATA 3.X has basically met all the needs of the civil market.

 NVMe is a transport protocol specially developed for flash memory products. It is the optimal solution of SSD transport protocol, which can give full play to SSD performance and reduce latency.

Is the preferred SSD protocol for the M.2 interface.ssd hard disk

Flash-based SOLID-state drives (SSDS) are the main category of SSDS. Their internal structure is very simple. The main body of SSDS is actually a PCB board, and the basic accessories of this PCB board are the control chip, the cache chip (some low-end hard drives have no cache chip) and the flash chip for storing data.

Main control chip.ssd hard disk

Common SSDS in the market include LSISandForce, Indilinx, JMicron, Marvell, Phison, Sandisk, Goldendisk, Samsung and Intel and other master chips.

The master chip is the brain of the SSD. Its function is to reasonably allocate the load of data on each flash chip, and to undertake the whole data transfer and connect the flash chip with the external SATA interface.

The ability difference between different master is very big, in the data processing ability, algorithm, read and write control of the flash chip will be very different, which directly leads to the performance gap of SSD products up to several times.

ssd hard disk.Cache particles

Next to the master chip is the cache particle. Like traditional hard drives, SSDS need high-speed cache chips to assist the master chip in data processing.

It is important to note that there are some low-cost SOLID-state drive solutions that do not use this cache chip to save costs, which can have a certain impact on the performance, especially the read and write performance and service life of small files.

ssd hard disk.Flash memory chips

Except for the main control chip and the cache chip, most of the other positions on the PCB are NAND Flash chips.

NAND Flash memory chips are divided into SLC (single-level Cell) [7], MLC (multi-level Cell) [7], TLC (Trinary Level Cell),

Three-layer Cell) [7] and QLC (Quad-level Cell, four-layer Cell).

Another eMLC (Enterprise Multi-level Cell) is an "enhanced" version of MLC NAND flash memory, which to some extent Bridges the performance and durability gap between SLC and MLC.


SSD hard drives vs SATA drives vs NVMe.What is the difference between SATA and NVMe hard drives?

You're talking about hard drives. These devices are where all the data on your computer exists, from the operating system files that govern your device to the important work document that you can't lose. You want to make sure that you have the right hard drive for whatever you're trying to do.SSD hard drives

SSD hard drives SaT, SSD and NVMe are the three main types of hard drives. In this article, we will learn about the different types of people. Whether you are buying a new PC or upgrading, this should help you decide which one to buy.

What is a hard drive, and why do I need it?

The hard drive is the main component of a computer. The term "hard drive" is often abbreviated to "HDD". You might want to buy one of these:

I think you're running out of space on your HDD. I need a bigger one.

It takes a long time to open documents or to export large files.

If you're building a new computer from scratch, what will you do?

Whatever the situation, understanding why you want or need a new drive will help you know what you want and need. Once you've got that figured out, it's time to know more about the different types of hard drives and the trade - offs between them.

SATA drives

SaTATA (Serial Advanced Technology Attachment) is the standard interface for most desktop and laptop hard drives. They are rotary hard drives with spinning platters and a needle that writes data to consecutive sectors on each platter. Compared to their predecessor, the PATA hard drive, SATA can write at a speed of 6 Gb/s and 600 MB of throughput to the disk.
A single drive can range from 500 GB to 16 TB. These are good drives if you don't need a lot of storage. If data is written to a disk, it can become fragmented and slow down the system. They are also a poor choice for laptops due to the large number of moving parts in each drive.

Pros, yes.

Low cost.

Large disk sizes


It's not good for laptops.

Requires regular de fragmentation.

SSD hard drives

Solid state drive. These disks have no moving parts. The data is stored on non-volatile flash memory instead. They are significantly faster than SATA drives because there is no needle to read or write data. Even the lower performing drives are comparable to SATA drives, but it's difficult to find an exact speed. n nThese drives are more expensive and don't come in as many sizes. SsD drives are about 2 -- 4 times the price of a SATA hard drive. (SSD hard drives)These drives are designed specifically for laptops, and have no moving parts, making them ideal for storage on the go

SSD hard drives
SSD hard drives


More durable, especially for laptops

More expensive than SATA drives

Lower disk sizes


Non - volatile memory express (NVMe) is a type of SSD that is attached to the PCIe (PCI Express) slot on the main board. These slots were originally designed for graphics cards. With a throughput of 3.9 GB/s, the interface rate on NVMe drives can reach 32 Gbps. This can be very useful if you are using a large amount of disk space.
There are some drawbacks to NVMes. They're available only on desktop computers and very expensive. To use it to its full potential, you'll want to install your operating system on it. At this time, most BIOS don't support NVMe. It's possible to get one, but it could mean replacing the entire main board.
Fastest disk type on the market

Extremely expensive

Available for desktop PCs only

May require replacing main board to get full benefit

Which is better: SATA, SSD or NVMe?

When deciding between components, there are a lot of considerations. Choose what fits your budget, capacity and technical requirements. The guidelines below may help, and while they won't fit every situation, they may be useful for planning your next build.

If you:

I need a large amount of storage.

They are on a tight budget.

I need a general purpose hard disk.

If you:

What is the best way to upgrade a laptop?

Need fast storage under 2TB
If you:

Building a high - end workstation or gaming PC

I don't have a budget.

Building a server that is gonna host an application.

It's worth mentioning that PCs typically support several hard drives at a time. Where you save files will determine whether you get the performance you want. For example, a common configuration for PCs that render video is to use a faster drive like an SSD or NVMe to run video rendering software (Camtasia, Adobe Premier, etc.) and then transfer the finished product to a cheaper, larger SATA drive.

Build your knowledge and skills.

Now that you've learned the basics of hard drives, you should be able to make an informed decision. What are the reasons behind replacing your hard drive? If you apply what you've learned here, your hard drive buying experience will be much easier.


4 Reasons and Solutions for Slow SSD(solid state drive)

As a hard disk using NAND as storage medium, SSD is ten times faster than traditional disc mechanical hard disk theory. Upgrading from mechanical hard disk(ssd) to solid state hard disk can greatly improve the speed of computer on/off, the speed of software loading and the fluency. However, some netizens often say that after upgrading the solid state hard disk, their computer does not feel faster or slower. What's wrong? Next, let's get your computer in control!

The importance of properly installing SSD interfaces is ignored

If you are using a laptop, make sure that the extension interface of the motherboard provides SATA 2, SATA 3, or M.2 interfaces, which directly affects whether the SDD you add will run at normal read/write speed. Generally, the reading and writing speed of SSD of SATA3 interface can reach about 500 MB/s, and can only reach up to 300 MB/s on SATA2. The theoretical speed is nearly twice as fast, so it is necessary to pay attention to the correct corresponding interface when adding SSD to the computer.
Some users like to take their notebook's CD-ROM drive apart and transfer it to a hard disk, but many notebooks have only SATA 2 as the CD-ROM interface, which can make it less effective to install a solid-state hard disk. Due to the speed limit of the interface, high-speed SSD speed cannot be used. Half of these users are advised to change the installation location of the CD-ROM drive to the secondary drive (mechanical hard disk) and the hard disk to the SSD when installing SSD.
In addition, many new notebooks are now equipped with M.2 interface. When installing M.2 interface SSD, users also need to see if the interface supports PCI-E channel. The relevant NVMe drivers need to be installed correctly to avoid unstable data reading and machine jamming.
What interfaces and protocols are supported by the motherboard can generally be consulted in the product description. PC Xiao Bai suggests choosing the latest Core 8th Generation notebook or using Z300 Series Chip notebook, which upgrades the SATA 3 interface completely and supports the NVMe M.2 interface SSD. It is very convenient to install the driver automatically under Win10 operating system.


Common data is not installed on SSD disks

solid state drive don't end up on your computer, and the speed at which data is read still depends on where you save the source address. When multiple hard drives are mixed and matched, for example, SSD + HDD is often chosen. If the data is still stored in HDD, it is still futile.
Solution: Reload the system and migrate the data using the newly installed SSD

The capacity of solid state hard disk is too small

To improve lifetime, SSDs(ssd) are usually erased only after the data has been fully written to its maximum capacity once, but when this process occurs, the performance of SSDs can be severely affected. Therefore, if the capacity is insufficient and often needs to be erased, the effect will be discounted.
Solution: Select large capacity SSD.

Solid state hard disks are not optimized, such as no 4K alignment

Solid state hard disk 4K alignment is very important. The so-called 4K alignment actually refers to 4K advanced formatting, which requires 4K alignment of hard disk sectors. The 4K Advanced Formatting Standard specifies that the hard disk sector size is migrated from the current 512 bytes to 4096 bytes (or 4K). This change will improve formatting efficiency, which will help the hard disk to provide higher capacity while providing improved error correction.
When partitioning, it is important to check the 4K alignment. If you find that your SSD does not have 4K alignment, you can search for and download the software Paragon Alignment Tool above to make a lossless 4K alignment for your SSD.
These are the reasons and solutions for whether your computer is slow with a solid state hard disk, especially the 4K alignment problem. After checking these problems, users are confident that the speed will be greatly improved so that your computer can fly smoothly.

solid state drive


Solid-state drives (ssd drive ssd disks)origin

Solid State Drives (Solid-state drives) ssd, referred to as fixed disks, solid state drives (ssd drive) with solid-state electronic memory chip array and made of hard disks, Solid-state drives consisting of control units and storage units (FLASH chips, DRAM chips). SSDs are exactly the same as traditional hard disks in terms of interface specifications and definitions, functions and usage methods, and are completely consistent with traditional hard disks in terms of product form factor and size, but I/O performance is greatly improved compared to traditional hard disks. Widely used in military, vehicle, industrial control, video surveillance, network monitoring, network terminals, electric power, medical, aviation, navigation equipment and other fields.The operating temperature range of its chip is very wide, commercial products (0 ~ 70 °C) industrial products (-40 ~ 85 °C). Although the cost is higher, it is also gradually spreading to the DIY market. Because SSD technology is different from traditional HDD technology, many emerging memory manufacturers have emerged.

Manufacturers only need to purchase NAND memory, and with the appropriate control chip, they can manufacture SSDs. The new generation of SSDs generally useSATA-3 interface, M.2 interface, MSATA interface, PCI-E interface, SAS interface, CFast interface and SFF-8639 interface.

However, when the Solid-state drives is powered off for a long time and placed in a high temperature environment, it will face the risk of data loss. So using an SSD to back up your data is not a great option.

With the rapid development of the Internet, people's demand for data information storage is also constantly improving, and now many storage manufacturers have launched their own portable solid-state drives, and more mobile solid-state drives that support Type-C interface and support fingerprint recognition are launched.

Solid-state drives

Basic information

Chinese name
Solid-state drives

Foreign name
Solid State Drive

Non-volatile memory

Scope of application
High-performance computing, military, in-vehicle, industrial control


1 Product Introduction
2 Comparison references
3 basic structure
4 advantages and disadvantages
5 capacity price
6 Development history
7 SSDs(Solid-state drives ssd drive ssd disks)
8 Buy Full Raiders
9 Summary

Collapse and edit this paragraph of the product brief

Solid State Drives (Solid State Drives), referred to as fixed disks, is a hard disk made of solid-state electronic memory chip arrays, and its chip has a wide operating temperature range and commercial products
Solid-state drives
Solid-state drives
(0 ~ 70 °C) industrial standard products (-40 ~ 85 °C). Although the cost is higher, it is also gradually spreading to the DIY market. Because SSD technology is different from traditional HDD technology, many emerging memory manufacturers have emerged. Manufacturers only need to purchase NAND memory, and with the appropriate control chip, they can manufacture SSDs. The new generation of SSDs generally useSATA-3 interface, M.2 interface, MSATA interface, PCI-E interface, SAS interface, CFast interface and SFF-8639 interface.