hard drive

ssd drives Solid state disk and mechanical hard disk storage principle

The basic working principle of a mechanical hard disk (HDD).ssd drives
When a mechanical hard drive needs to read or write data, it receives a command, the head moves to the appropriate position, and the platter rotates so that the data operation area is in the specified position.
The time required for these actions is the seek time and latency period, which take several milliseconds due to the need to move the device.
This is due to the read/write mechanism of the operating system:
Hard disk is divided into several areas as the most basic operating unit, the unit is called "sectors", when a new writing data, choose one or a few sectors for writing data, the position of these sectors are next to each other, they are logically continuous, in both the read and write the required time is short.
And here's the crux of the matter:
After all the data are not in the established forever there won't be changed, when previously written data modification, such as increasing the content and data volume increase, and next to the location of the original sectors have other data, these new data will be written to the other place to go, so we see in the operating system of a file, in the actual physical address is not continuous,
When the file is read again, the disk will have to do more work, and in the worst case, the head and platter will be moved and rotated many times, and the final working time will be doubled.
With the increase of storage capacity per unit area, we can enjoy higher capacity hard drives, but the speed of reading and writing data has not been much improved.
Because the key factors that determine seek time and latency period: head movement speed and disk rotation speed are close to the limit, further increase will bring other adverse factors: such as cost increase, noise, temperature increase and so on

1.Physical structure of the ssd drives


The system interface, power supply, and drive mode of SSDS are all the same as those of HDDS. The main changes are the constituent units and physical working mode.
The SSD internals include a PCB board, a main controller chip, a flash memory chip and, in some cases, a cache.
The most basic unit of an SSD is a Flash memory chip, called Nand Flash. It is a non-volatile memory chip that can write and erase data very fast by charging and dropping data.
Since signals are transmitted entirely through circuits during read and write operations, there is no movement of the head, rotation of the platter, etc., as in HDDS, which greatly reduces the processing time.
However, Nand Flash is also divided into several types. Currently, consumer SSDS and even many enterprise SSDS use MLC (multi-layer cell) Flash memory, which has a lower write performance than SLC (single-layer cell) Flash memory, and a shorter life span, but the price is much lower.
Even so, the current cost of SSD has not been reduced to the extent that everyone can accept, and the price is still the barrier affecting the further popularity of SSD.
An SSD is composed of multiple Nand flash flash memory particles, each of which can be considered as an independent storage unit, and the master controller makes a RAID parallel between them.
This means that SSD reads and writes are "multithreaded", and the work is not limited to one particle at a time. The master can split the data and write it to different particles at the same time, which is naturally faster.
This is one of the reasons why SSDS are fast.
Of course, what the master has to do is fa

2.The master controller of the ssd drives

SSD Flash memory also has a minimum operation unit. Compared with mechanical hard disks, Nand Flash has a special difference in that the minimum unit for write and erase operations is different. The minimum unit for write operations is 4KB, which is called "Page", while the minimum unit for erase operations is 512KB, which is called "Block".
That is, writing to a blank cell can be done on a page-by-page basis, but to delete the data, the entire block needs to be erased.
When the data in a block needs to be deleted, the data to be deleted will be marked rather than physically erased. Then when the data needs to be written in the same physical location again, the valid data will be retained, copied to the new block, and then the original block will be erased.
It sounds complicated, but to put it simply, the SSD write mechanism requires 1MB of data to be written. The actual operation volume may be larger than this. The specific amount depends on whether the main controller's algorithm is efficient, and the actual random write speed depends on whether the operation speed is fast enough.
Like HDDS, SSDS require logical addresses to be managed. However, the minimum operating system logical address unit is 512B, and the minimum SSD write unit is 4KB, which requires that, the chipset, and the main controller work in sequence.
In addition, the main controller and is responsible for the allocation of tasks, each flash chips all flash memory state monitoring, the management of each piece of data validation, etc., quite a lot of work and multifarious, and this is why in some of the new master ARM to use dual core processor, because master performance will directly affect the speed of the SSD.

3.Advantages of ssd drives

Fast read/write speed: The flash memory is used as the storage medium, and the read speed is higher than that of a mechanical hard disk.
Solid state drives are not used, and the seek time is almost zero.
The sustained write speed is amazing, and most SSD manufacturers will claim that their SSD sustained read/write speeds exceed 500/s!
Solid state drives are faster than just continuous read and write. Random read and write speed is the ultimate meaning of solid state drives, which is most directly reflected in most daily operations.
Also associated with this are extremely low access times, with the most common 7200RPM mechanical hard drives typically having seek times of 12-14, while solid state drives can easily reach 0.1ms or less.
Shockproof and smash resistant: Traditional hard disks are disk-shaped, and data is stored in the disk sector.
And solid-state drives is to use flash particles (i.e., mp3, U disk, etc), so there are no mechanical components inside SSD solid state hard drive, so even in the case of high-speed mobile even with flip tilt also won't affect the normal use, and in the case of collisions and shocks to minimize the possibility of loss.
Compared with traditional hard disks, solid state drives have absolute advantages.
Low power consumption: Solid state drives are lower than traditional hard disks.
No noise: Solid state drives have no mechanical motors and fans, and the noise level is 0 dB when working.
Flash-based solid-state drives consume less energy and generate less heat when operating (although higher-end or high-capacity devices consume more energy).
There are no mechanical moving parts inside, no mechanical failure, and not afraid of collision, impact, vibration.
Since solid-state drives use flash memory chips without mechanical components, they have the characteristics of low heat and fast heat dissipation.
Wide range of operating temperatures: Typical hard drives only work in the range of 5 to 55 degrees Celsius.
Most solid-state drives work from -10 to 70 degrees Celsius.
Solid-state disks are smaller and lighter than mechanical disks of the same capacity.
The interface specifications, definitions, functions, and usage methods of solid state drives are the same as those of common hard disks, and the product shape and size are the same as those of common hard disks.
Its operating temperature range is very wide (-40~85 degrees Celsius).
Lightweight: Solid-state drives are lighter in terms of weight, weighing 20-30 grams less than regular 1.8-inch hard drives.


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【SSD SOLID State Disk】2023 How can I detect a hard disk fault

Simple to teach you to judge the hard drive failure problem

Disk faults can be classified into two types: SSD software faults and SSD hardware faults.
The classification of academic circles is complicated, not easy to remember( SSD SOLID State Disk), and not very practical.
I have many years of hard disk data recovery experience, just to the computer hard disk data recovery company, especially for many years encountered regular hard disk failure for a statistics and classification, many users such as hard disk failure can be according to the phenomenon corresponding to the initial judgment of hard disk failure.
1:Magnetic head damage Magnetic head damage is a common failure of hard disks, ( SSD )especially for IBM's later products.
High temperatures and cooling problems sent IBM, the founder of hard drives, to its grave.
The typical symptoms of head damage are failure to pass the self-test at startup, and the hard drive makes a regular "click, click" sound because it cannot find the path.
Some notebook hard disk sound will be relatively small, to listen to close to hear.
In this case, if the hard disk data is important, you should power off immediately, because after the head is damaged, the back swing of the head arm may scratch the disk and lead to countless data recovery.
At this time should find a strength of the data recovery company, do not get the computer city shop surface.

Now the domestic data recovery industry practitioners are uneven.

As we all know, the hard disk can only be disassembled and replaced in the pure room above 100 level.
If you disassemble a hard disk in a normal environment, the disk surface will become sticky and data cannot be recovered.
2:Motherboard damage If the hard disk motherboard burns out, the most common manifestation is that there is no response after the electricity.
Users can hold the hard drive in their hand and feel if it turns.
If it is a notebook hard disk is close to the hard disk to listen to whether there is a sound of rotation.
You can also see whether the components on the board have obvious burn marks.
If the damaged hard disk data is not important, you can go to the computer city to find a repair hard disk can be processed, if the data is important to consider, many repair hard disk will often repair the hard disk at the same time also lost data.
3.Hard disk Bad sector Hard disk bad sectors are common faults. Today's hard disks have a high speed and large capacity, which makes them more prone to bad sectors.
Users can install a fan for hard disks in common use, which is very effective against hard disk faults.
The symptom of a bad sector on a hard disk varies with the severity of the bad sector. For example, if the system starts slowly, a bad sector may occur on a system disk.
Or can enter the system, but inexplicably less partition or some partition can not be opened, or can open partition and some folders can not be opened.
These symptoms are typical of bad sectors on hard disks.
Some serious will make the system can not start normally, if mounted as a secondary disk or even make the primary disk system can not start.
Still have more serious, be BIOS seeks hard disk to want to seek along while.
At this time if the fault disk does not have important data, then get a small software low lattice, such as DM, MHDD and so on can be done, if serious may need professional tools such as PC3000.
If the faulty disk has important data, remember: Do not forcibly power on the faulty disk to replicate data, because bad sectors can easily spread.
Forcing electricity increases the number and density of bad roads.
It will increase the difficulty of data recovery and cost more.
Hard drive brands with fast bad sectors spread include Samsung, Western Digital, and IBM.
A bad track on a hard disk sometimes makes a sound, but it is not the same as a damaged head.
The sound is quieter than the damage of the magnetic head, and the hard disk indicator is steady on when a bad sector is detected.
Four.
Disk disk damage Disk damage is a common term in the industry. In fact, a disk cannot be identified and used due to an error in the firmware of the disk.
The firmware area refers to the most basic information about the hard drive stored in the negative area, such as the P list, G list, SMART table, disk size and so on.
After the disk is powered on, the magnetic head reads the information in the negative sector first. If the information in the negative sector is not read, the disk fails the self-test and an error is reported.
This type of failure typically involves a hard drive that would have reported an error in your F1 ignore or DEL CMOS setting after startup self-inspection.
Press DEL to enter the Settings, the detection of the hard disk will appear some wrong parameters, like The 40G thin disk of Maxtor will display N40P, and the capacity is generally 0, repair this kind of fault requires professional equipment.
Russia's PC3000 is the best at this and is widely used around the world.
Five.
MBR Damage The MBR is the master boot record of the hard disk, located on track 0 of the hard disk, and is very important basic information of the hard disk.
If the MBR is damaged, the hard drive can find the correct parameters in BIOS, but cannot be found in DOS or WINDOWS.
Many viruses can cause MBRS to be lost, as can bad hard drives or other human factors.
Six.
Partition table loss viruses, bad tracks, misoperations, mis-cloning, and misuse of one-click recovery (a new feature of many brands) can all lead to partition table loss.
If the entire partition table or a partition is lost due to misoperation, users should not do redundant operations to avoid overwriting data.
You can ask a professional company to restore data. If there is no important data, you can directly rebuild the partition.
The common disk faults are listed as follows. Although not all disk faults are listed, they are usually included.

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ssd hard drive

are non-volatile computer storage devices that contain high-speed spinning disks or platters.It is the secondary storage device for permanently storing data, and random access memory (RAM) is the primary storage device.Nonvolatile means that data is retained when the computer is shut down.A hard disk drive is also called a hard drive .

HDD Mechanical hard disks and SOLID-state drives (SSDS)The hard drive is mounted inside the computer case and secured by the use of a bracket and screws to prevent it from shaking as it rotates.Typically it rotates at 5,400 to 15,000 RPM.Disks move at accelerated speeds, allowing immediate access to data.Most hard disks run on high-speed interfaces using serial ATA (SATA) or serial connection technology.An arm with a read/write head extends through the disc as it rotates.The arm writes new data to the disk and reads from it.Most hard drives use an enhanced Integrated Drive Electronics (EIDE),

which includes cables and connectors for the motherboard.All data is stored magnetically, allowing information to be saved when power is turned off.Hard disk drives require a read-only memory (ROM) controller board to indicate how, when and where read/write heads move.Hard drives stack disks on top of each other and rotate them in unison.

The read/write head is controlled by an actuator that magnetically reads and writes to the disk.The read/write head floats on a thin film of air above the platter.The two sides of the platter are used to store data.Each side or surface of a disk is called a head, and each head is divided into sectors and tracks.All tracks are the same distance from the center of the disk.Together they consist of a cylinder.Data is written to disk from the farthest track.Once the first cylinder is full, the read/write head moves inwards to the next cylinder.Hard disk drives are divided into one or more partitions, which can be further divided into logical drives or volumes.The master boot Record (MBR) is usually found at the beginning of the hard drive and contains a table of partition information.Each logical drive contains the boot record, the file allocation table (FAT), and the root directory of the FAT file system.hard drive


SSDS are Solid State Drives.HDDS are mechanical hard disks.The difference between:

Fast read and write speed of SOLID-state disk:

using flash memory as storage medium, the reading speed is faster than that of mechanical disk.
Solid-state drives do not use magnetic heads, and the seek time is almost zero.
The continuous write speed is so impressive that most SSD manufacturers will claim that their SSDS have sustained read/write speeds in excess of 500MB/s!

Solid state disks are shockproof and fall resistant:

Traditional hard disks are disk-type, and data is stored in the disk sector.
SSDS, on the other hand, are made of flash memory (mp3 players, USB flash drives, etc.), so there are no mechanical parts inside SSDS.This will not affect normal use even at high speed and even with tilting, and will minimize the possibility of data loss in the event of collision and vibration.hard drive

Solid-state drives have an absolute advantage over traditional hard drives.

Low power consumption: The power consumption of solid-state drives is lower than that of traditional hard drives.

solid-state drive no noise

solid-state drive has no mechanical motor and fan, the noise value is 0 db when working.
Flash-based SSDS consume less energy and heat while operating (although high-end or high-volume products consume more energy). There is no mechanical moving parts inside, no mechanical failure, and no collision, impact, vibration.
Solid-state drives use flash memory chips without mechanical components, so they have the characteristics of low heat generation and fast heat dissipation.hard drive

Low SSD life:

SOLID-state drives (SSDS) flash memory has a limited number of erase times, which is one of the reasons many people complain about their short life.
A complete erase of flash memory is called a P/E, so the lifetime of flash memory is measured in P/E units.

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